ACM Transactions on

Storage (TOS)

Latest Articles


This article presents a framework, Frog, for Context-Based File Systems (CBFSs) that aim at simplifying the development of context-based file systems and applications. Unlike existing informed-based context-aware systems, Frog is a unifying informed-based framework that abstracts context-specific solutions as views, allowing applications to make... (more)

Accelerating File System Metadata Access with Byte-Addressable Nonvolatile Memory

File system performance is dominated by small and frequent metadata access. Metadata is stored as blocks on the hard disk drive. Partial metadata... (more)

On the Trade-Offs among Performance, Energy, and Endurance in a Versatile Hybrid Drive

There are trade-offs among performance, energy, and device endurance for storage systems. Designs optimized for one dimension or workload often suffer... (more)


Temporal graphs that capture graph changes over time are attracting increasing interest from research communities, for functions such as understanding temporal characteristics of social interactions on a time-evolving social graph. ImmortalGraph is a storage and execution engine designed and... (more)


Note from Editor-in-Chief

I am delighted to announce that ACM Transactions on Storage is now being indexed by Thomson-Reuters through the Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Current Contents/Engineering Computing and Technology. This is in recognition of the quality of the articles appearing in Transactions on Storage, and I would like to extend my gratitude and appreciation to all of authors who have made this possible. As the old adage says, "a rising tide raises all boats" and the increased visibility of Transactions on Storage increases the impact of your article, and will attract even higher quality articles to our journal.

I want to again thank all of the authors who have made this possible, and express my hope that the growing impact of Transactions on Storage will continue. Computer Science is now a mature discipline, and the importance of journal publication is increasing. By sending your best work to Transactions on Storage you contribute to the field and to the standing of this journal.

New options for ACM authors to manage rights and permissions for their work

ACM introduces a new publishing license agreement, an updated copyright transfer agreement, and a new author-pays option which allows for perpetual open access through the ACM Digital Library. For more information, visit the ACM Author Rights webpage.

Forthcoming Articles

H-Scale: A Fast Approach to Scale Disk Arrays via Hybrid Stripe Deployment

Statistical Techniques to Identify Predictive Groupings in Storage System Accesses

SWANS: An Inter-Disk Wear-Leveling Strategy for RAID-0 Structured SSD Arrays

Shuffle Index: Efficient and Private Access to Outsourced Data

Does RAID Improve Lifetime of SSD Arrays?

RAIDShield: Characterizing, Monitoring, and Proactively Protecting Against Disk Failures

Storage systems orchestrate a group of disks to achieve performance and reliability goals. Even though such systems are designed to withstand the failure of individual disks, failure of multiple disks poses a unique set of challenges. We empirically investigate disk data from a large number of production systems, specifically focusing on the impact of disk failures on RAID storage systems. Our data covers about one million SATA disks from 6 disk models for periods up to 5 years. We show how observed disk failures weaken the protection provided by RAID. The count of reallocated sectors correlates strongly with impending failures. With these findings we designed RAIDSHIELD, which consists of two components. First, we have built and evaluated an active defense mechanism that monitors the health of each disk and replaces those that are predicted to fail imminently. This proactive protection has been incorporated into our product and is observed to eliminate 80% of all RAID failures. Second, we have designed and simulated a method to quantify how likely a RAID group is to face multiple simultaneous disk failures. We find in simulation that RAID-level analysis can effectively identify most vulnerable RAID-6 systems, improving the coverage to 98% of triple errors.

MultiLanes: Providing Virtualized Storage for OS-level Virtualization on Many Cores

OS-level virtualization is an efficient method for server consolidation. However, the sharing of kernel services among the co-located virtualized environments (VEs) incurs performance interference between each other. Especially, interference effects within the shared I/O stack would lead to severe performance degradations on many-core platforms incorporating fast storage technologies (e.g., non-volatile memories). This article presents MultiLanes, a virtualized storage system for OS-level virtualization on many cores. MultiLanes builds an isolated I/O stack on top of a virtualized storage device for each VE to eliminate contention on kernel data structures and locks between them, thus scaling them to many cores. Moreover, the overhead of storage device virtualization is tuned to be negligible so that MultiLanes can deliver competitive performance against Linux. Apart from scalability, MultiLanes also delivers flexibility and security to all the VEs, as the virtualized storage device allows each VE to run its own guest file system. The evaluation of our prototype system built for Linux container (LXC) on a 32-core machine with both a RAM disk and a flash-based SSD demonstrates MultiLanes scales much better than Linux in micro- and macro-benchmarks, bringing significant performance improvements.

Introduction to the Special Issue USENIX FAST 2015

BetrFS: Write-Optimization in a Kernel File System

Improving Flash-based Disk Cache with Lazy Adaptive Replacement

Storage Workload Identification

Workload identification is an important problem for cloud providers to solve because 1) providers can leverage this information to co-locate similar workloads in order to make the system more predictable 2) providers can identify workloads and subsequently give guidance to the subscribers as to associated best practices for provisioning those workloads. Historically, people have identified workloads by looking at their read/write ratios, random/sequential ratios, block size and inter-arrival frequency. Researchers are aware that workload characteristics change over time and that one cannot just take a point in time view of a workload because that will incorrectly characterize workload behavior. Increasingly, manual detection of workload signature is becoming harder because 1) it is difficult for a human to detect a pattern, and 2) representing a workload signature by a tuple consisting of {\it average} values for each of the signature components leads to a large error. In this paper, we present workload signature detection and matching algorithm that is able to correctly identify workload signatures and match them with other similar workload signatures. We have tested our algorithm on nine different workloads generated using publicly available traces and on real customer workloads running in field to show robustness of our approach.

Internal Parallelism of Flash Memory based Solid State Drives

Flash memory based solid state drives (SSDs) have shown a great potential to change todays storage infrastructure fundamentally. A unique merit of an SSD is its internal parallelism. In this paper we present a comprehensive study on understanding and exploiting internal parallelism of SSDs for high-speed data processing. Through extensive experiments and thorough analysis, we find that exploiting internal parallelism can not only substantially improve I/O performance (e.g., 7.2x) but also lead to many surprising side effects and dynamics, which have a strong implication to system and application designers. Based on these findings, we also present a set of case studies in database management systems, a typical data-intensive application, and show that exploiting internal parallelism can substantially improve system performance, and in the meantime, it also changes the equation for optimizing application performance and calls for a careful reconsideration on various design choices.

Efficient Dynamic Provable Possession of Remote Data via Update Trees

Storage Workload Identification

Skylight---A Window on Shingled Disk Operation

We introduce Skylight, a novel methodology that combines software and hardware techniques to reverse engineer key properties of drive-managed Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) drives. The software part of Skylight measures the latency of controlled I/O operations to infer important properties of drive-managed SMR, including type, structure, and size of the persistent cache; type of cleaning algorithm; type of block mapping; and size of bands. The hardware part of Skylight tracks drive head movements during these tests, using a high-speed camera through an observation window drilled through the cover of the drive. These observations not only confirm inferences from measurements, but resolve ambiguities that arise from the use of latency measurements alone. We show the generality and efficacy of our techniques by running them on top of three emulated and two real SMR drives, discovering valuable performance-relevant details of the behavior of the real SMR drives.


Publication Years 2005-2015
Publication Count 175
Citation Count 1099
Available for Download 175
Downloads (6 weeks) 1513
Downloads (12 Months) 14865
Downloads (cumulative) 121134
Average downloads per article 692
Average citations per article 6
First Name Last Name Award
Sarita Adve ACM Fellows (2010)
Emery David Berger ACM Senior Member (2010)
Alok Choudhary ACM Fellows (2009)
Deborah Estrin ACM-W Athena Lecturer Award (2006)
ACM Fellows (2000)
Gregory Ganger ACM Distinguished Member (2007)
Garth A Gibson ACM Fellows (2012)
ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award (1991)
Ramesh Govindan ACM Fellows (2011)
John Heidemann ACM Senior Member (2007)
Kai Li ACM Fellows (1998)
Ming Li ACM Fellows (2006)
Mingqiang Li ACM Fellows (2006)
Ethan L Miller ACM Distinguished Member (2013)
Walid Najjar ACM Senior Member (2014)
Michael Reiter ACM Fellows (2008)
Stefan Savage ACM Fellows (2010)
Steven Scott ACM Fellows (2012)
Kenneth C Sevcik ACM Fellows (1997)
Anand Sivasubramaniam ACM Distinguished Member (2010)
ACM Senior Member (2009)
Chandramohan A Thekkath ACM Fellows (2009)
Gene Tsudik ACM Fellows (2014)
ACM Senior Member (2013)
Amin Vahdat ACM Fellows (2011)
David Wagner ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award (2001)
Randy Wang ACM Eugene L. Lawler Award for Humanitarian Contributions within Computer Science and Informatics (2007)
Marianne Winslett ACM Fellows (2006)
Tao Xie ACM Senior Member (2011)
Philip S Yu ACM Fellows (1997)
Yuanyuan Zhou ACM Fellows (2013)
ACM Distinguished Member (2011)
Yuanyuan Zhou ACM Fellows (2013)
ACM Distinguished Member (2011)

First Name Last Name Paper Counts
Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau 9
Youjip Won 6
Teiwei Kuo 6
Erez Zadok 6
Remzi Arpaci-Dusseau 5
Raju Rangaswami 4
Bianca Schroeder 4
Remzi Arpaci-Dusseau 4
Charles Wright 4
Randal Burns 4
Weimin Zheng 4
Xiao Qin 4
Ethan Miller 4
Nitin Agrawal 3
Hyokyung Bahn 3
Hyeonsang Eom 3
Lidong Zhou 3
Dan Feng 3
Youngjin Yu 3
Hong Jiang 3
Darrell Long 3
Stergios Anastasiadis 3
James Cipar 3
Yuanhao Chang 3
Jenwei Hsieh 3
Jiwu Shu 3
Song Jiang 3
Vijayan Prabhakaran 3
Guangyan Zhang 3
Lipin Chang 3
Ilias Iliadis 3
Heonyoung Yeom 3
Yuanyuan Zhou 3
Ohad Rodeh 3
Tao Xie 2
Jeffrey Chase 2
Erik Riedel 2
Jaemin Jung 2
Eunji Lee 2
Scott Brandt 2
Wei Xue 2
Evangelos Eleftheriou 2
Xiaoyu Hu 2
Kiran Muniswamy-Reddy 2
Nikolai Joukov 2
Chinhsien Wu 2
Ashvin Goel 2
Mark Storer 2
Suzhen Wu 2
Shu Yin 2
Gopalan Sivathanu 2
Alma Riska 2
Daniel Fryer 2
Angela Brown 2
Arkady Kanevsky 2
Qingsong Wei 2
Mario Blaum 2
Adam Manzanares 2
An Wang 2
William Bolosky 2
Gene Tsudik 2
Bo Hong 2
Anand Sivasubramaniam 2
Xiaoning Ding 2
Yuehai Xu 2
Sudhanva Gurumurthi 2
Jianxi Chen 2
Ali Tosun 2
Xiaojun Ruan 2
Peter Reiher 2
Geoff Kuenning 2
Jongmin Gim 2
Aneesh Reddy 2
Eitan Bachmat 2
Taeho Hwang 2
Zhenmin Li 2
John MacCormick 2
Kyuho Park 2
Swaminathan Sundararaman 2
Sriram Subramanian 2
Dongin Shin 2
Bo Mao 2
Lei Tian 2
Patrick Lee 2
Gregory Ganger 2
Cheng Chen 2
Roger Zimmermann 2
Philip Carns 1
Charles Bacon 1
Michael Kozuch 1
Chongfeng Hu 1
Austin Donnelly 1
Dan Tsafrir 1
Ajay Dholakia 1
Zoran Dimitrijević 1
Klaus Schauser 1
Nick Murphy 1
Dongin Shin 1
Evgenia Smirni 1
Kaladhar Voruganti 1
Runhui Li 1
Ao Ma 1
Lanyue Lu 1
Chunho Ng 1
Ragib Hasan 1
David Holland 1
Michael Vrable 1
Geoffrey Voelker 1
Alexandros Batsakis 1
Yungfeng Lu 1
Sašo Tomažič 1
Randolph Wang 1
Sriram Sankar 1
Keqin Li 1
Alysson Bessani 1
Miguel Correia 1
Enhong Chen 1
Zhichao Li 1
Yao Sun 1
Yangwook Kang 1
Tom Friedetzky 1
Toni Cortes 1
Zhiwei Sun 1
Anthony Skjellum 1
Satoshi Sugahara 1
Rakesh Iyer 1
Jian Zhang 1
Mahmut Kandemir 1
Dimitrios Gunopulos 1
Suresh Jagannathan 1
Jeanna Matthews 1
Krishna Kant 1
Jongmoo Choi 1
Hsinwen Wei 1
Amanpreet Mukker 1
Leo Arulraj 1
Einar Mykletun 1
Mahesh Balakrishnan 1
Weikeng Liao 1
Walid Najjar 1
Deepak Bobbarjung 1
Josef Bacik 1
Seokhei Cho 1
Sooyong Kang 1
Pieter Hartel 1
Windsor Hsu 1
John Heidemann 1
Xiaodong Li 1
Kimberly Keeton 1
Kaushik Veeraraghavan 1
Phillipa Gill 1
Ricardo Koller 1
Lingfang Zeng 1
Chandramohan Thekkath 1
Kirsten Hildrum 1
Philip Yu 1
Seonho Kim 1
Ron Arnan 1
Eno Thereska 1
Hyojun Kim 1
Lakshmi Bairavasundaram 1
David Wagner 1
Dilma Silva 1
Ahmed Amer 1
Haifeng Yu 1
Venugopalan Ramasubramanian 1
Zhen Huang 1
James Plank 1
Jin Li 1
Radu Sion 1
Anton Kos 1
Veljko Milutinovic 1
Mohammed Khatib 1
Hyungjong Shin 1
Rahat Mahmood 1
Sarita Adve 1
Michail Flouris 1
Priya Sehgal 1
Kai Li 1
Abhishek Rajimwale 1
Michael Swift 1
Chengkang Hsieh 1
Fred Douglis 1
Akshay Katta 1
Michael Stumm 1
David Quigley 1
Puja Gupta 1
Samuel Lang 1
Lawrence Chiu 1
Lianghong Xu 1
Dinh Tran 1
Joseph Murray 1
Armando Fox 1
Andrew Huang 1
Feng Chen 1
Ming Li 1
Lei Tian 1
Jon Elerath 1
Jiri Schindler 1
Mary Baker 1
Gyudong Shim 1
Youngwoo Park 1
Qiang Cao 1
Shan Lu 1
Seungwon Hwang 1
Navendu Jain 1
Lawrence You 1
Zachary Peterson 1
Kai Li 1
Mark Shaw 1
Xianghong Luo 1
Yan Li 1
Hyungju Cho 1
Taesun Chung 1
Ming Wu 1
Wenguang Chen 1
Mohammed Alghamdi 1
Matthew Curry 1
Garth Gibson 1
Mathew Oldham 1
Kanchi Gopinath 1
Xiao Qin 1
Nguyen Tran 1
Frank Chiang 1
Yulai Xie 1
Kaiwei Li 1
Asim Kadav 1
Xiaosong Ma 1
Stephen Scott 1
Hyungkyu Chang 1
Sukwoo Kang 1
Sheng Qiu 1
Soyoon Lee 1
Sanjeev Trika 1
Debra Hensgen 1
Haim Helman 1
Weikuan Shih 1
Tsansheng Hsu 1
Mark Huang 1
Vasily Tarasov 1
Edmund Nightingale 1
Pochun Huang 1
Picheng Hsiu 1
Rohit Jain 1
Joel Wolf 1
Kevin Harms 1
William Allcock 1
Clement Dickey 1
Weihang Jiang 1
Phung Huynh 1
Amin Vahdat 1
Changxun Wu 1
Aichun Pang 1
Junfeng Yang 1
Hyunjin Choi 1
Jaewoo Choi 1
Ningfang Mi 1
Vagelis Hristidis 1
Yubiao Pan 1
Ernst Biersack 1
Cheng Huang 1
Gaewon You 1
Jasna Milovanovic 1
Jaka Sodnik 1
Sara Stancin 1
Jianzhong Huang 1
Jinyang Li 1
Jiwu Shu 1
Fan Yang 1
Emery Berger 1
Jacob Lorch 1
Maithili Narasimha 1
Vincent Freeh 1
Yang Wang 1
Nandan Tammineedi 1
Chris Mason 1
Sam Noh 1
Rick Coulson 1
Tsungtai Yeh 1
Eunki Kim 1
TingHao Cheng 1
Angelos Bilas 1
Jason Flinn 1
Kevin Bowers 1
Guanying Wu 1
Xubin He 1
Ben Eckart 1
Sajib Kundu 1
Christos Karamanolis 1
Magnus Karlsson 1
Thomas Schwarz 1
Harikesavan Krishnan 1
Xuechen Zhang 1
Robert Latham 1
Robert Ross 1
John Lui 1
Yuxing Peng 1
Alexey Tumanov 1
Jack Sun 1
Dushyanth Narayanan 1
Edward Chang 1
Chris Dragga 1
Marianne Winslett 1
James Lentini 1
Anxiao(Andrew) Jiang 1
Nitin Garg 1
Garth Gibson 1
Darrell Long 1
Bruno Quaresma 1
Ming Chen 1
Ji Zhang 1
Alexander Thomasian 1
Ivan Popov 1
Luis Bathen 1
Binny Gill 1
Aydan Yumerefendi 1
Weishinn Ku 1
Lee Ward 1
Jin Qian 1
Jianhong Lin 1
Dahlia Malkhi 1
Jonathan Strickland 1
Junseok Shim 1
Gokhan Memik 1
Cezary Dubnicki 1
Kei Davis 1
A Narasimha Reddy 1
Avishay Traeger 1
Sungroh Yoon 1
Tsengyi Chen 1
Shaun Benjamin 1
Ian Adams 1
Chunghsien Wu 1
Geming Chiu 1
Lars Bongo 1
Sugata Ghosal 1
Kristof Roomp 1
Lisa Fleischer 1
Hong Zhu 1
Ruben Michel 1
Masaaki Tanaka 1
Ying Lin 1
Jaemin Ryu 1
Yongdai Kim 1
Tyler Simon 1
Gerald Popek 1
Demetrios Zeinalipour-Yazti 1
Song Lin 1
Assaf Natanzon 1
Xiaojian Wu 1
John Garrison 1
Knut Grimsrud 1
Kuoyi Huang 1
Byeonggil Jeon 1
Philip Shilane 1
Grant Wallace 1
Kuei Sun 1
Hyojun Kim 1
Cristian Ungureanu 1
Deborah Estrin 1
Thanos Makatos 1
William Josephson 1
Brian Noble 1
Sotirios Damouras 1
Kaushik Dutta 1
Xiaoyun Zhu 1
Jay Dave 1
Nitin Gupta 1
Garth Goodson 1
David Essary 1
Yongchiang Tay 1
James Megquier 1
Seungho Lim 1
Peter Desnoyers 1
Bradley Vander Zanden 1
Jun Yang 1
Mingdi Xue 1
Minghua Chen 1
Andromachi Hatzieleftheriou 1
Zhifeng Chen 1
Michael Abd-El-Malek 1
Michael Reiter 1
Youshan Miao 1
Alberto Miranda 1
Sascha Effert 1
André Brinkmann 1
Mohit Saxena 1
Vana Kalogeraki 1
Di Ma 1
Vinodh Venkatesan 1
David Chambliss 1
Deepak Ganesan 1
Ramesh Govindan 1
Yannis Klonatos 1
Manolis Marazakis 1
David Flynn 1
Lihao Xu 1
Jianqiang Luo 1
Alina Oprea 1
Marcus Jager 1
Ryan Peterson 1
Kenneth Sevcik 1
Feng Wang 1
Mohammad Zubair 1
Yinlong Xu 1
Elie Krevat 1
Kahwai Lee 1
Tomer Hertz 1
KK Rao 1
Anthony Tung 1
Richard Spillane 1
Chihyuan Huang 1
Hong Jiang 1
Yinjin Fu 1
Qian Chang 1
Qin Xin 1
James Plank 1
Sam Noh 1
Peter Trifonov 1
Yankit Li 1
Thomas Talpey 1
PingYi Hsu 1
Muthian Sivathanu 1
Sumeet Sobti 1
Junwen Lai 1
Arvind Krishnamurthy 1
Fenghao Zhang 1
Nihat Altiparmak 1
Kushagra Vaid 1
Sejin Kwon 1
Wentao Han 1
Xunfei Jiang 1
Charles Weddle 1
Mark Corner 1
John Douceur 1
Nitin Agrawal 1
Yupu Zhang 1
Dutch Meyer 1
Sudharshan Vazhkudai 1
Qian Wang 1
Alok Choudhary 1
Mais Nijim 1
Changhyun Park 1
Jaehyuk Cha 1
Ben Greenstein 1
Beomjoo Seo 1
Akshat Verma 1
Taokai Lam 1
Liping Xiang 1
Mingqiang Li 1
Sangeetha Seshadri 1
Mike Qin 1
Antony Rowstron 1
Jai Menon 1
Gordon Hughes 1
Daniel Ellard 1
Rajiv Wickremesinghe 1
Udi Wieder 1
Qi Zhang 1
Kevin Greenan 1
Medha Bhadkamkar 1
Fernando Farfán 1
Adam Buchsbaum 1
Marshall Mckusick 1
Min Xu 1
Stefan Savage 1
Vesna Pavlović 1
Hyeongseog Kim 1
Robert Haas 1
Kristal Pollack 1
Jehoshua Bruck 1
Feng Zheng 1
Matthew Wachs 1
Karan Sanghi 1
Fernando André 1
Paulo Sousa 1

Affiliation Paper Counts
Dankook University 1
Al Baha University 1
Los Alamos National Laboratory 1
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya 1
Cornell University 1
Harvard University 1
The University of British Columbia 1
Santa Clara University 1
National Taichung Institute of Technology Taiwan 1
Dartmouth College 1
Earlham College 1
Indian Institute of Science 1
Sun Microsystems 1
University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute 1
University of Denver 1
University of Washington Seattle 1
The University of Tennessee System 1
Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University 1
Tamkang University 1
University of Durham 1
New Jersey Institute of Technology 1
Dickinson College, Pittsburgh 1
University of California, Berkeley 1
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1
Complutense University of Madrid 1
Oracle Corporation 1
Northeastern University 1
University of California, Santa Barbara 1
Temple University 1
University of Cyprus 1, Inc. 1
Symantec Corporation 1
Barcelona Supercomputing Center 1
Yale University 1
Harvey Mudd College 2
Ewha Women's University 2
Virginia Commonwealth University 2
Ohio State University 2
Google Inc. 2
National Taipei University of Technology 2
Stanford University 2
Sandia National Laboratories 2
University of Pittsburgh 2
The College of William and Mary 2
Hongik University 2
National Tsing Hua University 2
San Diego State University 2
University of Twente 2
University of Virginia 2
University of Tokyo 2
University of Alabama at Birmingham 2
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev 2
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology 2
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz 2
California Institute of Technology 2
Pohang University of Science and Technology 2
University of Belgrade 2
Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2
Ajou University 3
University of Texas at San Antonio 3
IBM India Research Laboratory New Delhi 3
Northwestern University 3
Duke University 3
Purdue University 3
National Chiao Tung University Taiwan 3
University of Tennessee, Knoxville 3
National University of Singapore 3
Xiamen University 3
Oak Ridge National Laboratory 3
National University of Defense Technology China 3
University Michigan Ann Arbor 3
Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology 3
Microsoft Research Cambridge 3
Microsoft Research Asia 3
Samsung Electronics 4
University of Ioannina 4
North Carolina State University 4
Seagate Research 4
HP Labs 4
University of Massachusetts Amherst 4
Academia Sinica Taiwan 4
New York University 4
University of Southern California 4
University of California, Riverside 4
University of Ljubljana 4
Pennsylvania State University 5
University of Lisbon 5
Florida State University 5
IBM Almaden Research Center 5
NEC Laboratories America, Inc. 5
Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas 5
University of California, Los Angeles 5
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology 5
Johns Hopkins University 6
University of California, Irvine 6
Microsoft 6
Date Storage Institute, A-Star, Singapore 6
University of California, San Diego 6
Intel Corporation 6
University of Science and Technology of China 7
University of Nebraska - Lincoln 7
Argonne National Laboratory 7
EMC Corporation 7
Chinese University of Hong Kong 8
Wayne State University 8
Texas A and M University 8
Princeton University 9
IBM Zurich Research Laboratory 9
Florida International University 10
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center 10
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 12
Auburn University 12
Huazhong University of Science and Technology 12
National Taiwan University 13
Carnegie Mellon University 16
Seoul National University 17
Hanyang University 17
University of Toronto 19
University of California, Santa Cruz 19
Tsinghua University 20
Microsoft Research 22
Stony Brook University 24
University of Wisconsin Madison 36
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